Curing Burabura

Glossary of Lean Production Related Terms
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A worker with little workload will handle more processes, a worker with lots of workload fewer. If there is a problem the other workers can keep working until all of them arrive at the problem spot and can help. Requires among other things short cycle times, and hence is often used in pick-and-place or commissioning of materials. Buffer : Used to decouple fluctuations or unevenness Mura. Usually means a type of inventory or buffer stock, but could also be a capacity buffer. Producing good parts in the first place rather than checking for defective parts afterward.

No defective products are passed to the next station. See also Poka Yoke and Baka Yoke. Bullwhip Effect : Effect of small fluctuations in demand magnifying along the value chain and generating losses through increasingly larger demand swings. Can be avoided through Pull. Also known as demand amplification, or the Forrester effect after its first publication by Jay Forrester. Part of the concept of Ba. Cardboard Engineering : Creating a mock-up of a new workplace or line from cardboard.

Works best for workplaces or lines that include manual work. The workers rearrange and change the cardboard layout to fit the future line to their needs. This is also good for team building. Only useful if there is no existing line yet. Sometimes also called 3 P. Cargo Cult Science : Term coined by Richard Feynman for approaches that look scientific, but in reality has nothing to do with science but merely copy what other people do without understanding. There is usually little chance of success. Named after the cargo cult in Melanesia, where during World War II the Stone Age technology islanders built straw mock airplanes, straw airports, and straw radios in the hope that real airplanes land and deliver goods as they did for the American soldiers.

Common but usually doomed to fail approach in Lean Manufacturing. See also Lean Religion. Developed by Eliyahu M. Goldratt — Cellular manufacturing : Workplace design based on the similarity between part types, where all operations for a product family are in close proximity the cell , greatly improving material and information flow. Machines are grouped based on the family of similar part types, and the manufacturing system is divided into cells of similar part types. See also Assembly Cell. The machine works independently and ejects the part afterward before the worker loops back to the machine.

A variant of Multi-Machine-Handling. See also my post The Chaku Chaku Line. Exercise and teaching method famous with Taiichi Ohno. At a location of interest, a circle is drawn on the ground using chalk. A person engineer, lean trainee, etc. Every now and then the coach stops by and asks what the person has seen.

This exercise usually takes a few hours before the coach is satisfied with what the person has seen. See also Kizuki. Change Agent : Person in charge of driving a lean transformation Kaizen. Often suboptimal Western concept, since one person — often with little management power — can rarely change an organization. Often an outside expert in lean. At Toyota, Kaizen is part of their culture; hence they usually do not have a dedicated change agent. Change Over Time : Time for changing a process or system from producing one product to another product.

Sometimes also called Set Up Time. This is defined as the time between the completion of the last good part in full speed of the previous product till the completion of the first good part in full speed of the next product. Ideally the time is zero to allow One Piece Flow. See also SMED for optimizing the change over time. So far only theoretical, as I know of no implementation.

Feels a bit too complex for my taste. However, I like the paper-based idea. Identifies the sequence of steps that are critical to the overall Lead Time. Originated with TOC. Usually ignores fluctuations and uncertainty. Customer Takt : Takt Time of the customer, calculated by dividing the total work time during a period by the number of parts requested by the customer prediction or historical data.

See also System Takt. Cycle Time : Fastest repeatable time of a process not the average time for a process. This cycle time does not include any losses. Can be determined for example by taking the 10th or 25th percentile of a set of measurements, although this is not clearly defined.

If losses are included the resulting time is a Takt Time. For example, an Injection molding machine may change the tool die after every part depending on what part is needed next. Toyota and Denso are using this already on some of their assembly lines, e. Trying to never be in the second place whatever you do. This is especially applied to Lean. Please note that Dantotsu is a Denso-internal word and not part of the western lean vocabulary.

Dashboard : Also known as cockpit. Summarizing all relevant KPI of a process or system on one page. May contain different charts. Often used by middle and higher management to get a view of the current state on the shop floor. Has the risk of incorrect or manipulated data.

Genchi Genbutsu is needed to verify if the data is correct. See also my post on DBR. Promoted with claims that seem to be too good to be true to me, although I have not yet tried it myself. Delivery Performance : Delivery performance aims to measure the reliability of satisfying customer orders both by the quantity and timewise, i.

It is usually given as a percentage of e. Overall, it is a frequently fudged number. Deming, W. Edwards October 14, — December 20, : Quality management expert. Better known but in my view less influential than Joseph M. Design Freeze DF : Time during the product development process at which the design of the product is no longer changed, and the focus is on creating a manufacturing system for the product. Changing the design afterwards causes significant additional work for the manufacturing preparations. While most companies use design freezes during development, design changes after the design freeze are unfortunately still common.

DFMA Design for Manufacturing and Assembly : Development approach where the manufacturing and assembly problems are already taken into consideration when designing the part. See also DFMA. Digital Twin : Expression used in Industry 4. Sometimes also called a digital shadow. Diseconomies of scale : Opposite of Economies of Scale , where costs go up as companies become bigger. The more employees a company has, the more difficult it will be to keep everybody informed and motivated. Larger corporations have whole departments that seem to be mostly busy with themselves or even creating more work for others, e.

DOE Design of Experiments : Design of experiments to maximize the understanding of the system with the minimum number of experiments needed using statistical tools. Very similar and overlapping with Taguchi method by Genichi Taguchi. Pretty much synonymous with PPM. Promoted by lean consultant Hitoshi Takeda. E Economies of Scale : Cost benefits from increasing the size of an operation production, service, etc. The constant fixed costs are distributed across more products sold and hence become smaller on a per-product basis.

May also include more market power when bargaining with suppliers or customers. Opposite of Diseconomies of scale , which may outweigh the economies of scale for very large companies. Request or order to implement an engineering change to a product to improve the product reduce cost, fix a problem, or generally improve. A large number of ECR can create havoc with a manufacturing system. It uses a whole set of different models including eight core values that a company should have Adding value for customer, creating sustainable future, and so on … all true but very fuzzy and in my view not of much use for a practical approach , nine different criteria leadership, people, strategies, … again rather fuzzy and a PDCA variant called RADAR for Results, Approaches, Deployment, and Assess and Refine.

Significant use of mechanization, but without interchangeable parts. Often still extensively based on the skills of the machine operators. Made obsolete by the American system of manufacturing. EOQ Economic order quantity : A mathematical approach to minimize total inventory holding costs and ordering costs.

Theoretically perfect, but in practice hampered by uncertainty, fluctuations, and rapid change of customer demands or process capacity. In lean manufacturing, Pull is often considered a better alternative. The interval can be a fixed time period e. Common is that all high runner parts have exactly one production run before the cycle starts again.

Less common exotic parts are not produced every interval. The idea is to move production towards smaller lot sizes the interval should be as short as feasible and to create leveling Heijunka. See also the Fixed Repeating Schedule for an almost identical approach. This approach requires a stable production system to work. ERP Enterprise resource planning : Business management software to track all data related to business, including production, development, marketing, shipping, etc. This is a further development of MRP.

Fake Lean : Activities that look like Lean , but lack understanding and commitment, and are often done primarily to please higher-ups with activities while not having the knowledge, time, or resources to actually do real improvement. In the spirit of the time, the theory is geared very much towards command and control, lacking nowadays important aspects like employee development, employee empowerment, or an idea suggestion system. This is a fixed short-term version of the TBS.

Opposite of the much less common LIFO. It is calculated by dividing the number of good products by the total number of products produced. Anything that needs any kind of fixing or repairs after completion is not counted towards this percentage. The opposite would be the defect rate, although the defect rate can be calculated both before rework and after rework.

FISH First In Still Here : Informal and sarcastic abbreviation for inventory that is sitting around for an excessively long time, maybe due to obsolescence or simply bad inventory management. Tool to determine the possible root causes of an effect. Usually, it is drawn with the effect under consideration on one side the head of the fish , a horizontal line going out from the effect the spine , and different lines going out from the spine the bones.

The bones represent different possible causes. These can be based on a standard set, e. See 4 M for this and other possible standard sets. See also my post on Fishbone Diagrams and Mind Maps. Fixed Repeating Schedule : Production program pattern that is repeated unchangingly for a number of iterations before the pattern is adapted to changing demands. Part of Heijunka. Flexible Manufacturing System FMS : A flexible manufacturing system aims to produce different products on the same system. Flow Shop : General name for a type of manufacturing where the production processes are arranged primarily in a sequence that is needed for the production of the parts.

See also Project Shop. Sometimes also called flow production or process sequence layout. FMEA Failure Modes and Effects Analysis : Method to estimate the probability, severity, detection likelihood and impact of problems with products in order to focus on the most serious problems first. Focused Factory : Manufacturing plant or section thereof that is focused on a narrow range of products or services.

By focusing on a limited number of tasks, the performance for these tasks can be improved easier. Concept developed by Wickham Skinner around Focus is on relentless optimization for Mass Production of one good e. Its weakness is its inflexibility. Seems to be valid for many group developments. Forming is the creating of the group, with the members being quite independently. Storming is the creation and exchange of opinions on the goals and approach.

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This may include clashes within the group. In Norming these clashes are resolved and the group learns how to work together. Finally performing is then a group that works together towards a common goal. Not all groups reach the performing stage. It includes 4 main points: 1 Facts : What happened.

G Gantt Chart : Bar chart to visualize a project schedule. In manufacturing, this usually refers to the shop floor. Sometimes also written as Genba. See also Gemba Walk. While the word is somewhat similar to Genchi , Gemba is more an actual location whereas Genchi is closer in meaning to locally. Gemba Walk : Western term for visiting Gemba. Usually refers to a visit to the shop floor to see the actual situation rather than an Excel sheet or PowerPoint slide claiming to be the actual situation. Sometimes also written as Gembutsu. Sometimes also part of the 3 R. Sometimes also written as Genchi Gembutsu.

Based on the words Genchi for the actual place and Genbutsu for the actual article. Toyota philosophy to go and see the actual facts and conditions. Some consider him to be a genius; others are more skeptical about his achievements. Regardless of which, he had the ability to explain complex ideas in simple terms. In a philosophical sense represents the Toyota Production System. The graph includes quantities and therefore gives an overview of what is needed for which products. See also Gozinto Matrix.

Used to determine which parts purchased or produced are most relevant for the production system. Greenfield : General phrase for a new production system or factory, where everything is designed from scratch. Gives more freedom and possibilities to suit the buildings and facilities to its exact purpose, since often quite literally at the beginning there is only a green field on which a new factory is constructed. The higher flexibility usually comes with a higher initial cost compared to the opposite Brownfield.

See also Chaku-Chaku. Harada Method : Method to enhance employee development. Actively promoted and containing some useful ideas in self-management, but high buzzword value. Includes 33 questions for self-reliance, a 64 field chart, and other diagrams. Hawthorne Effect : Effect of a system improving merely because it is observed. Often generates the appearance of improvement, but will revert to its former performance soon after the project is over.

Also known as the observer effect. Named after its first study at the Hawthorne Works in Illinois. Different methods can be used to smoothen production. See for example Fixed Repeating Schedule. See also my posts on Leveling. Heijunka Box : Box in which Kanban cards are put to visualize the leveling Heijunka pattern. Disconnected managers believe they are running a lean plant if these boxes are on the shop floor.

Statistically, for near misses, there are 29 minor accidents, for which there is one serious accident. Hence, to reduce serious accidents you have to work on reducing minor accidents and near misses. Hidden Factory : Two overlapping meanings. Opposite of Low Mix High Volume. Rather than education, this approach considers the lifelong education, training, and coaching of people as part of any excellent workplace. See also Monozukuri and less commonly Kotozukuri. See also Takumi. Holonic Manufacturing System : Autonomous and self-reliant manufacturing system.

Initially used in for systems that can adapt to new products, research now talks about self-adjusting systems. Sometimes also called strategy deployment. In contrast, see Nichijou Kanri for daily management. The three words stand for a report by a subordinate, which should include all relevant information.

Next, all stakeholders are informed about the current status. The third word refers to discuss with others on the next steps, decisions, and actions. The idea is to do it frequently. The method does not originate from Toyota but from a financial firm around The opinion on this is divided. Some believe the frequent communication will improve business processes, others believe that this has a too high demand for the work time of both employees and managers. See also Yokoten and Nemawashi. The kanji shown here are used by Toyota, but other companies as for example Nissan use slightly different kanji.

The idea is that the visible problems or statements only make up a small part of the entire set of problems and that there are many more problems, issues, feelings, and other things hidden beneath. Can be based on Monitoring KPI. This expression is rarely used. In my view using just KPI is good enough for most cases.

Industry 4. Exact content is a bit fuzzy but includes especially the internet of things and cyber-physical systems. A major buzzword in Germany since , but often with little to show for. See also my posts A Critical Look at Industry 4. Information Flow : Flow of the information through the Value Stream. One of the key points to optimize in Lean Manufacturing , for example, to achieve the goal of Pull production. Often combined with Material Flow. Note that the material flow can also overlap with the information flow, as for example in a FIFO the material is also the information on what to produce next.

Interrelationship Digraph ID : Variant of cause and effect diagrams. See 4 M for details. In my view like similar ISO norms e. ISO for quality it seems to be mostly a money making thing by selling certificates without really changing the quality of the underlying Lean or Six Sigma. Luckily, so far this is not yet accepted by the Lean community, and hopefully never will be. Item Specific Dunnage : Dunnage, in general, is inexpensive filler material for packaging.

Item-specific dunnage is cut to fit exactly one type of part. This could be blisters similar to the plastic trays for pralines where each praline has an indent fitting this praline or cut out foam to match the shape of the parts. With this item specific dunnage, it is easy to get exactly the right number of parts in a box. Hence it is also a way for Visual Management.

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See also my posts What Exactly Is Jidoka? This represents the level of trust subordinates have in their manager, and how much trust a manager is able to win from its subordinates. By its nature, this aspect is hard to quantify. See Toyota Manager Evaluation for more. The goal is to make the best out of its employees. One of the five aspects of the Toyota Manager Evaluation. Managers identify the areas of improvement. Job Enrichment : Approach to motivate employees by giving them higher-level responsibilities in order to increase satisfaction and to reduce the feeling of being an unimportant cog in the machine driven by other forces.

Originally developed by American psychologist Frederick Herzberg around Job Shop : General name for a type of manufacturing where the production processes are not arranged in a sequence that is needed for the production of the parts. Instead, they are often arranged by their primary function e. Sometimes also called process village layout. Usually involves Kitting.

See also SPS. Juran, Joseph M. December 24, — February 28, : Quality management expert. While less known than W. Edwards Deming , in my view Juran was more influential. Awards the famous Deming prize. Just in Time JIT : Delivery of goods exactly at the time when they are needed, in the quantity they are needed, and in good quality. In proper English grammar this would be just on time , but in Lean just in time is used.

Unfortunately all too common with lean manufacturing in the west. See also Kakushin. Part of Kaizen. Sometimes also abbreviated as CPI for continuous process improvement. Kaizen Blitz : Two meanings: 1 Short and fast improvement Kaizen activities to solve easy-to-solve problems. Introduced by the AME association for manufacturing excellence in While there are some problems in Lean that can be solved quickly, most require more time for analysis, implementation, and especially confirmation that it works. Hence, a Kaizen Blitz or Kaizen Event may work, but most of the time would be insufficient to solve a problem.

Kaizen Event : Generally any type of event or activity aimed towards improvement Kaizen of the situation. Also called Kaizen workshop. Usually applied to events related to Lean. Kaizen Group : Small team focusing on improvement Kaizen. Often translated as revolutionary changes, but in my view, this would be Kaikaku. Generally part of the improvement process, or Kaizen. At Toyota tool for visual management, where cards with audit or problem-related information are on a board.

If a card has been turned over, then it is completed. Not turned over cards indicate that the problem has not been solved yet or the audit has not yet been performed. Sometimes used together with T-Cards. Sometimes misspelled as Kamishabi. The key here is not the use of mechanics, but rather an ingenious technical trick or gizmo. Usually uses little or no electronics. A mere gravity slide would be too simple for Karakuri Kaizen , whereas a full-blown automated system with sensors and actuators would be too complex.

See also my post series starting with Introduction to Karakuri Kaizen. This approach should be used for every problem; its repeated usage is the equivalent of the martial arts Kata. A set of questions have been developed to reinforce this approach. The method is loosely based on TWI. See also Shuhari. See also my post Toyota Kata. For example, Toyota has an alphanumeric code called Katashiki that details exactly what model and options make up the vehicle.

See also the Katashiki Card. The Katashiki card may indicate if it is a two-door or four-door vehicle, if it has a sunroof, the type of entertainment system, the color, etc.

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Based on the Katashiki. Originated from Zaibatsu , but rather than a controlling family at the top has mutual relationships. These systems are rare outside of Japan. Keiretsu reduce the risk of hostile takeovers and limits the influence of stock market fluctuations. Very handy if you need to estimate the waiting times e. The system has to be steady state, but there are no limitations on the type of distribution for arrival or cycle time.

Please be aware that the output is only an approximation, not an exact result. Developed by John Kingman in Kitting : Providing material to the assembly line in kits. The kitting is the actual process of picking different parts in a larger supermarket often near the assembly line in order to provide a set of needed parts to the assembly line.

Often used if there are many different part types and space around the assembly line is an issue. See also Chalk Circle. Little used outside of Nissan. See also Monozukuri and Hitozukuri. Furthermore, see OKR for a slightly different approach. See also my posts on KPI.

Problems are issues that are not yet resolved but have to be addressed, and Try are ideas and approaches to resolve these problems. It is longer than a YWT , and can easily take 30 minutes. It is often done in writing on a flipchart or whiteboard. They also coordinate improvements activities.

An important difference to western suppliers is that the major customer is not in charge of the group. Instead, these groups are organized by the suppliers.

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This requires the major customer to give more control to the suppliers. It is claimed that Kyoryokukai outperforms traditional western supply chains. While there are different approaches, 4 steps seem to be popular: 1 Understand the current situation: Point out potential health and safety issues; 2 Understand the causes of the danger. Lead Time : Total time a part is in the system, also the time a part needs to pass from the beginning to the end. Significant as this is usually also the minimum time needed to produce a product for the customer.

Usually, the average value is used. Leader Standard Work : Aims to improve leadership behavior to foster a culture of Kaizen. Also known as or similar to kaizen for management, lean management, or lean leadership. In my view, the Toyota Production System is not excellent because of its methods but because of the excellent management at Toyota. See also Kata. Also applies outside of manufacturing, e. Lean 2. While lean has been around for decades, it is still in my view the best approach to organize and improve manufacturing and related systems.

In my view, this term is not needed and luckily seems to be little used by real practitioners. Lean consumption : Opposite of Lean Manufacturing or lean production. Sort of Lean for retailing or service providers. Tries to provide the customer exactly what he wants, when he wants it, where he wants it, in good quality, and without wasting the resources of the customer. Possibly a buzzword. Lean Enterprise : Attempt at a re-branding of lean with the goal to provide lean not only in manufacturing but for the entire enterprise. Usually used synonymous with Lean Production , although lean manufacturing is more common.

The term was coined by John Krafcik. Sometimes also called lean production, and also often abbreviated to Lean. Lean Production : Same as Lean Manufacturing , which is more common. Lean Religion : Implementation of the methods of the Toyota Production System lean manufacturing without understanding the causes or reasons. Usually leads to waste due to lots of improvement effort with little results; or even worsening the situation.

An example would be management requiring the use of Kanban ; hence the shop floor calls every piece of paper Kanban without any resemblance to a Pull system. This is a type of material flow with a defined upper limit. The sequence, however, is last in first out, i. This approach is rarely used since it has a high risk of parts staying in the system for a long time. Usually only used if storage conditions force this system.

Another example: A pile of material coal, stones, etc. Hence the material at the very bottom was the first to be added but will be the last to be removed. Lights out Factory : Vision of a factory that is so highly automated that there are normally no workers present at all. Hence, you can turn off the light and the factory keeps on working. Japanese Robot maker FANUC runs lights out factories for up to 30 days at a time, turning off not only the light but also the heating and air conditioning. Liker, Jeffrey : Jeffrey K.

Overall speed the System Takt should match the Customer Takt. See also Yamazumi-chart if you prefer a fancy Japanese name.

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The lead time is the WIP multiplied by the average time between parts. Named after John Little, and also used in many instances of probability theory outside of manufacturing. Valid over a wide range of assumptions, and not influenced by the arrival process distribution, the service distribution, or the service order. The most relevant limitation is that the system has to be steady state and should not change over time. Opposite of High Mix Low Volume. Often for High Mix Low Volume production. Often produced in a Job Shop , but Flow Shop production is also sometimes possible.

Opposite of Make to Stock. Since you do not have finished goods stock, you cannot decouple fluctuation through finished goods stock, hence the customer usually has to wait until the product is completed, hence decoupling through time. Make to Stock MTS : General term of products that are produced for an inventory rather than a customer order, and the customer satisfies his demand by taking a part out of the inventory.

Possible only for products where a customer demand for this product can be expected, mostly Low Mix High Volume production. Usually produced in a Flow Shop. Opposite of Make to Order. The Advantage of MTS products is that you can decouple fluctuations through your inventory your stock. Mass Customization : The vision to create individually customized products at mass production cost and prices. Usually still requires large quantities to have some efficiencies of scale. See also my post Strategies for Mass Customization. Mass Production : Production of a large number of identical parts. Through the large quantity, it is possible to benefit from the Economies of Scale. Started in the late 19th century in the USA, for example with matches, cigarettes, and canned food. Often uses an Assembly Line. Material Flow : Flow of the material through the Value Stream.

One of the key points to optimize in Lean Manufacturing , for example, to achieve the goal of One Piece Flow. Often combined with Information Flow. Matrix Diagram : Matrix that shows the relationship between items. Not to be confused with the Prioritization Matrix. MBO Management by Objectives : Leadership by giving numerical targets to the subordinates, giving the subordinates the means to achieve this target, and then let the subordinate work to achieve the target results.

A method developed by management guru Peter Drucker. MBWA Management by Walking Around : Leadership approach that involves walking around through the supervised area for random checks and suggestions. It is the percentage of the time of the lead time that a part is really worked on. Loosely related to the OEE. The company takes care of their workers and does not fire them. In turn, the company expects a lot of loyalty and commitment. MES Manufacturing Execution System : Generic name for a set of software to track the material flow in a production system, although it is also used in different contexts related to manufacturing.

The idea is to make the process or system easier to understand and observe. In contrast to Minomi. Rarely used outside of Japan. Milk Run : Material provider that delivers material to different stations in sequence and has a fixed schedule similar to a bus timetable. Mind Map : Diagram to visualize information. The core theme is usually drawn in the middle, with different branches extending, splitting, and connecting again to visualize the connections in between.

In my view sometimes quite a useful tool to grasp a problem with many complex interactions. There are no unimportant people or employees. You are in charge of your own work. The delivery could be e. This approach reduces handling of packaging material. See also Mikara. Both often incorrectly translated to water spider.

Different from a milk run , the point of use provider does not have a fixed schedule and route but provides material for a small area e. The area covered must be small enough so that the point of use provider can still track all needs, respond quickly, and keep everything in sight.

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Depending on who you ask it is a subset of, same as, or different from a MES. The expression is rarely used. A fundamental part of Japanese values and ethics. See also Hitozukuri and less commonly Kotozukuri. See also my post Monozukuri — Japanese Work Ethics. Monument : Two possible and related uses: A monument could be a machine that is too big to be moved, and hence the material flow and organization has to work around this monument.

It is sort of a rigid constraint for layout or production planning. It can also be a project that for some reasons cannot be changed. Cancelling this project may damage the reputation or career of an important player, and hence the project is pushed forward even if it no longer makes economic sense. Both measure times in TMU. See also Muda. Moving Assembly Line : Type of Assembly Line that is constantly moving while the processes are running. Often also called a continuously moving assembly line.

Suited for shorter cycle times, otherwise, a Pulse Line may be better. See also TNGA. MRP Material requirements planning : Production planning and scheduling software to keep track of the mass of data in manufacturing. A later version that tracks all manufacturing data was called Manufacturing resource planning. The term is still used but superseded by ERP , although many use these terms as synonyms. However, there are different definitions, and sometimes it is defined as the average time between breakdowns including repair time MTTR , which would actually make more sense based on the abbreviation MTBF.

In this case, a different abbreviation MTTF is used for the time between breakdown and repair. Usually, the underlying statistical distributed is right-tailed, meaning that you will have a lot of short times between failures and a few very long times. There are nowadays different flavors, e.

It measures times not in seconds, but in TMU. Used if MTBF is defined as the time between failures. Usually, the underlying statistical distributed is right-tailed, meaning that you will have a lot of short repair times and a few very long times. One of the 3 M. See also Waste Walk and Mottainai. Multi Machine Handling : System where one operator handles more than one machine. Ideally, the operator loads and sometimes also unloads parts and starts the machine.

While the machine processes the parts, the operator proceeds to the next machine. After handling two or more machines, the operator comes back to the first machine to repeat the cycle. It is important that if possible the machines wait for the operator, not the other way round. For a variant with loading only see Chaku-Chaku.

It is usually a Low Mix High Volume type of production.

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While somewhat similar, working at different machines in a Job Shop does not include a cycle, as the next machine or process may be different depending on the required products in a High Mix Low Volume production. Often done through Buffer. This fixture moves along with the assembly line while the worker is working. When the task is completed the nagara fixture moves against the direction of the assembly line to the next part automobile.

These nagara fixtures are often either trolleys that are pulled along the assembly line often nicknamed pirate ships , or tool racks hanging from above the line often nicknamed space-ships. See also Nagara-Switch. Can be used easily and quickly while walking past the switch without stopping. See also Nagara Fixture. A further improvement is a machine that starts automatically of the door is closed or a light curtain is no longer sensing a hand.

Process must be safe both for the worker and the product in case of accidental start. See also Tatakidai. Sometimes also spelled Nichijo Kanri. In contrast, see Hoshin Kanri for longer-term policy deployment. This helps bond the group, but also takes away even more personal time from the workers, reducing their work-life balance. May involve larger quantities of alcohol. More common in large cities like Tokyo, where the employees go home using public transport, less common in smaller towns where the employees have to drive home. Also seems to be more common with office workers, less common with shop floor workers.

Over time the room usually fills with data and charts on the wall. The OEE is the ratio of the number of good parts produced to the theoretical maximum number of parts, which is identical to the ratio of the Cycle Time to the average time between parts. See also my series of posts starting with What is OEE? The sometimes oversold method is basic: The objectives are the big picture of what you want to achieve.

From these you develop specific goals. For the implementation of the goals you need a strategy , and then measures to actually implement it. For me as a lean guy I am sorely missing the Check and Act from the PDCA to make sure you actually achieved your goals … OHSA Occupational Health and Safety : Abbreviation often used for the large issue of workplace safety, with the goal to reduce accidents and injuries. The World Health Organization WHO defines this as follows: Occupational health deals with all aspects of health and safety in the workplace and has a strong focus on primary prevention of hazards.

See also KYT. First used at Intel. OLE Overall Line Efficiency : Rarely used variant of the OEE with the goal to represent not only one process but the relationship of the processes of an entire factory. One Piece Flow : Production in its ideal state according to lean. The lot size is one, there is little or no Change Over Time , and sometimes also defined as no inventory whatsoever between the processes.

Closely related and sometimes used similarly to continuous flow or single piece flow. One Piece Flow is commonly misunderstood as continuously moving of parts. However, the parts may as well pause and wait. The focus is more on small lot sizes and small inventories. On its own often not optimal, should be enhanced with off the job training. But both are needed to train an employee. Very loosely related to the PDCA. It was initially named Overall People Effectiveness, but this ruffled some feathers with workers and unions.

Hence, it is now more generally called Overall Process Effectiveness. For more details on the method see OEE. Operational Excellence : New term promoted to replace the older term Lean Manufacturing , although the meaning is pretty much identical. Order Penetration Point : Point along the value stream where a generic product becomes assigned to a specific customer order. For Make to Stock , this happens only in the finished goods warehouse when the customer orders an item. For Make to Order products, this may be already under construction before a single part is made.

In the automotive industry, it is often the paint shop where a generic car body is painted in the color choice of the customer. A late order penetration point gives more flexibility in reacting to the customer demand, but an earlier one may reduce buffer inventories. OTE Overall Throughput Efficiency : Rarely used variant of the OEE with the goal to represent not only one process but the relationship of the processes of an entire factory. P Pacemaker : In manufacturing, this has two different meanings which are often confused.

For one, the pacemaker is the process that defines the production sequence. Another meaning of pacemaker is not based on the type of product but the quantity, where the pacemaker is somewhat synonymous with a non-shifting Bottleneck.

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Pack by Light : Similar to Pick by Light , but for the packing process. The box or container to be packed is put on top of a monitor, and the operator can see the monitor through holes in the bottom of the box. Alternatively, a projector projects an image down onto the box. The place where the item is to be put in the box is marked in color often red after the item is scanned by the operator.

This allows the computer to optimize packing of multiple items in one box, and also reduced packing errors. Not yet common, but used sometimes in Japan. The sorting and grouping of data by a quantity. For example, part numbers are ordered by quantity or value sold, errors are ordered by the number of occurrences. Frequently, the Pareto Principle holds true for the resulting graph. This holds true surprisingly often.

Named after Cyril Northcote Parkinson in an essay in the Economist. For simplicity, the processing time is often used as the value-added time, even though the process may not always be value adding. If for example, the operation takes 30 seconds, but the part was waiting for minutes before being processed, the PCE would be 0. The latter two are more difficult and often neglected, resulting in nice presentations but actual little improvements.

In practice pretty much identical. While the underlying idea is not bad, PEC is also often thrown around like a buzzword. Each slide has very little content think like one bullet point of traditional western slides. This allows a fast communication of the key points. In Japan, such presentations are often with multiple speakers in sequence in a Pechakucha-Night.

A similar concept in the western world would be an elevator speech, where you have around 30 seconds to give an update. I call it pseudo-Japanese, since it was invented in by two western architecture consultants in Japan, and they also own the trademark. For me, any approach to cut out clutter from presentations and shorten the overall time has my vote, but I prefer the non-trademarked versions.

In my view, this makes it worse than a simple and plain OEE. Also known as Activity Network Diagram. The principle is named after Laurence J. Peter, who observed it. The way I know it is a usually Excel list with every part number, including data relevant for pull production, i. As such, it is actually NOT a production plan as the name would indicate. I have also seen other definitions that vaguely claim the PFEP is a detailed plan for everything relevant to managing the production process.

The items are stored in a shelf by part number. A computer analyzes the packing list and turns on a light at the shelve slots where parts have to be picked. This reduces the searching of the operator. The confirmation of the pick is either by pressing a button or through a light barrier detecting a hand going into the shelve slot.

Because of that, many people having difficulties to telling others their conditions and it is difficult to give information on concrete needs. Evacuation drill at Burabura shows how disaster preparedness at the Bethel's house deeply related to their life and work. For bethel's member, disaster preparedness is not the special activity but every day activity.

Through activities on disaster preparedness, the Bethels member realized a characteristics of Urakawa town again. Not just physiographical and geographical characteristics but also better understanding and connection with local people living in Urakawa town. From the beginning, our intention was to contribute to this under populated community. By our knowledge and skill for securing safety of the guest as part of our work at Burabura, we are willing to share those skills to the community. Also, through our practice on evacuation drill of the group home, we will be able to share our skill with other people living in the same area including aged population, children and people with other disabilities.

Picture of the annual conference of the national psychiatric servicers and people with mental disorders. Even though there are members who have difficulties to participate in the other activities, Because of the consciousness on crisis management, they could participate in the evacuation drill at the group home. We can also provide knowledge on disaster preparedness to the new members joining the group house. Cooperation and networking was important factors for those good outcomes and development of practical activities. Isolation and weaken humanity connection are the main concern of the mental disorder.

It is said that mental disorder is a communication disorder. Not just a network among the members of Bethel but it consist many other networks including network among autonomy and Urakawa town support network Urakawa town support network is a network consisted because of the limited social cervices in this rural community. Started with the collaboration with National Rehabilitation Center of Persons with Disabilities, we collaborate with other regions in Japan which has the outstanding disaster preparedness activities.

Network becomes bigger and bigger and Now, we have network among all over Japan. These disaster response activities have mainly stressed on Tunamis following Earthquakes. Associated risks include landslides after an earthquake and mass evacuations under the worst whether condition, so that we need to think about more responses to those risks. Auditory or Ms. Go to the top of this page. Go to the upper category. Networking is a key. Racing hoses and marine products such as scalp and squid are the well-known products of Urakawa.

Picture of racing hose. Picture of the church where Bethel's house activities started. Picture of the packing kelp in the early days. Picture of the current office. Picture of the packing kelp in current office. Disaster preparation projects of Bethel's House Urakawa has been suffered from strong earthquakes every ten years. Picture of the Bethel's nursing care goods shop after an big earthquake.

Picture of the map of the house and activity places. Picture of the published books. Picture of the emergency goods. Steps of evacuation drill in the Bethel Select a captain of disaster preparation projects for their house and workplace. On the day of a practice drill of evacuation T. Confirm the day topics to be set up. Confirm your escape routes on map. Begin to move by a signal. Tape the simulation as much as possible by video or pictures. Keep time in reaching point of 10 meters high. Assemble the evacuation place and take a picture of all. Summer practice for evacuation.

August 28th , pm.